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By John Bourne

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Additional resources for A catechism of the steam engine in its various applications to mines, mills, steam navigation, railways, and agriculture. With practical instructions for the manufacture and management of engines of every class

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110. _--Are the configuration and structure of the steam engine, as it left the hand of Watt, materially different from those of modern engines? _--There is not much difference. In modern rotative land engines, the valves for admitting the steam to the cylinder or condenser, instead of being clack or pot-lid valves moved by tappets on the air pump rod, are usually sluice or sliding valves, moved by an eccentric wheel on the crank shaft. Sometimes the beam is discarded altogether, and malleable iron is more largely used in the construction of engines instead of the cast iron, which formerly so largely prevailed.

_--What are the principal varieties of screw engines? [Illustration: Fig. ] [Illustration: Fig. _--The engines employed for the propulsion of screw vessels are divided into two great classes,--geared engines and direct acting engines; and each of these classes again has many varieties. In screw vessels, the shaft on which the screw is set requires to revolve at a much greater velocity than is required in the case of the paddle shaft of a paddle vessel; and in geared engines this necessary velocity of rotation is obtained by the intervention of toothed wheels,--the engines themselves moving with the usual velocity of paddle engines; whereas in direct acting engines the required velocity of rotation is obtained by accelerating the speed of the engines, and which are connected immediately to the screw shaft.

1 If, then, steam of 100 lbs. , it will have 35 degrees of heat over that which is required for the maintenance of the vaporous state, or, in other words, it will be surcharged with heat. 137. _--What do you understand by specific heat? _--By specific heat, I understand the relative quantities of heat in bodies at the same temperature, just as by specific gravity I understand the relative quantities of matter in bodies of the same bulk. Equal weights of quicksilver and water at the same temperature do not contain the same quantities of heat, any more than equal bulks of those liquids contain the same quantity of matter.

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A catechism of the steam engine in its various applications to mines, mills, steam navigation, railways, and agriculture. With practical instructions for the manufacture and management of engines of every class by John Bourne


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