Download PDF by Sherman Hollar: A Closer Look at the Animal Kingdom (Introduction to Biology

By Sherman Hollar

ISBN-10: 1615305807

ISBN-13: 9781615305803

Age variety: eight - 12 Years

Table of Contents

Introduction 6

Chapter 1 the range of Animal existence 12

Chapter 2 class and behaviour 33

Chapter three Animals with no Backbones 50

Chapter four Animals with Backbones 61

Conclusion 75

Glossary 77

For additional information 80

Bibliography 83

Index 84

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Additional info for A Closer Look at the Animal Kingdom (Introduction to Biology - Britannica Digital Learning) (1st Edition)

Sample text

In contrast, an African grey parrot learned to use human speech sounds to label arbitrary objects shown it (Pepperberg, 1981), a task more comparable to that of the dolphin. While the number of objects labeled by the dolphin was less than that of the parrot and far less than the number of gestural labels used by chimps (R. A. Gardner and Gardner, 1984), the training time given to the dolphin Ake in this task was not as extensive as that for the other species, nor were the sounds chosen as labels as distinct as one would like in working toward increased repertoire size (Richards, 1986).

If the referenced object was absent, then the required response was to press the No paddle, regardless of whether the sentence was an imperative or an interrogative. 5%) of 324 imperative or interrogative sentences given her. 0%) of 108 trials. The imperative and interrogative forms were easily differentiated, as measured by the complete restriction of responses to the Yes and No paddles when given the interrogative form, and by the proper execution of action responses when given imperatives referring to an object that was present.

2%). Two of the errors were to PIPE exemplars, two to WATER exemplars, and one to a BALL exemplar. Thus, no name failed to show generalization, giving evidence of transfer of a name to new exemplars of the class of object referenced. d . Contexr Generalization. Context generalization entails extending the responses trained in one context to different contexts. Context variations included 28 LOUIS M . HERMAN the frequent use of different trainers, haphazard distribution of objects in the tank, different numbers of paired objects (paired objects allowed for the use of modifiers), and unpredictable sequences of sentences.

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A Closer Look at the Animal Kingdom (Introduction to Biology - Britannica Digital Learning) (1st Edition) by Sherman Hollar


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