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By Gail Maria Coelho

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13 The three sets are mutually exclusive; they never occur together in the same word. They also mark the end of a verb; only clitics can be attached after them. 28 Subject agreement markers occur immediately after realis and irrealis themes, inflectional aspect markers /-o, -o, -na/ and negative /-il/ . There are restrictions on which of the three sets of subject agreement markers can occur after these suffixes; as shown in Table 5. 6. 1. PN markers PN markers consist of a varied list of suffixes that are used to form different paradigms for different functional categories.

8: Irrealis theme + PN paradigm ya:ri ‘call’ Older variants Newer variants 1 sg yarpiya yarpi 2 sg yarpi -3 sg yarpa -1 pl yarpiya  yarpiyo yarpo 2, 3 pl yarpiyo yarpo 31 argu ~ ergu ‘sleep’ Older variants Newer variants ariya arwi arwi -arwa -ariya  ariyo arwo ariyo arwo The irrealis paradigm (with its variants) is also used after progressive /-o/, as shown in Table 9. 9: PN paradigm after the progressive marker 1 sg 2 sg 3 sg 1 pl 2, 3 pl ya:ri ‘call’ Older variants Newer variants yartoiya yartoi yartoi -yartoa -yartoiya yartoo  yartoiyo yartoiyo yartoo argu ~ ergu ‘sleep’ Older variants Newer variants eroiya eroi eroi -eroa -eroiya eroo  eroiyo eroiyo eroo /-na/ ‘perfect aspect’ differs from the other suffixes in that it can take two PN marker paradigms, the realis PN paradigm and the irrealis PN paradigm.

In (32b), the speaker uses /-ni/ with the irrealis theme when assuring the listener that she will perform an action. In (32c), the speaker, who is a tiger uses /- ni/ with the irrealis theme, when threatening to kill his victim. 32a) “niniya nnt pn tannan nawe. able-inf neg-3sg “I told you yesterday! 110) b) c) “na biaka bupni. nm “I’ll come later.

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A grammar of Betta Kurumba by Gail Maria Coelho


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