By Katharina Haude
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Extra info for A grammar of Movima
Due to these cases of unpredictable lengthening, I represent vowel length everywhere in the phonemic transcription, no matter whether it is of the phonemic or of the prosodic type. 2. The consonant inventory The consonant phonemes are presented in Table 3. Brackets signal non-native consonants. The question mark next to the glottal stop indicates that its status in the phoneme inventory is not entirely clear (cf. 3 below). Table 3. ) d t (f) s m h n l r w j j In the remainder of this section, each phoneme is described separately, and contrasted with one or several phonetically similar phonemes in onset and (if existing) coda position.
These cases are illustrated by (113) and (114), respectively. In both cases, the first person is implicit and therefore not necessarily overtly encoded (cf. 4). ’ However, /h/ and / / are phonemically distinct. This becomes apparent when a non-relational noun with a first person singular possessor, as in (115)a, is contrasted with an unpossessed non-relational noun, as in (115)b (cf. 3): 36 (115) a. 1 house [ a ' :ja] ‘my house’ b. n house [ ah ' :ja] ‘the house’; * ‘my house’ In contrast to the alternation between [s] and [h] described above, which is primarily speakerdependent, the alternation between [ ] and [h] seems to be a rapid-speech phenomenon.
Std+DET house [k ' s' :ja] ‘that house’ The complex consonants [p m] and [t n], which I will refer to as nasalized stops, are realized as follows. The glottal closure is immediately preceded by an oral closure (bilabial or alveolar, respectively). This closure is maintained during the release of the glottal stop, while the velum is lowered, leading to a voiceless nasal release. Before a pause, there can be variations in the pronunciation of the glottalized sounds. 2sg Another possible realization of a nasalized plosive before a pause is that of a simple glottal stop with a vocalic release followed by the nasal consonant: (77) /nih'bet/ [nih' n] ‘mangy’ In the speech of some, especially younger speakers, the nasalized plosives can be replaced by the simple glottal stop (so that, in fact, /p/ and /t/ are realized as [ ]): (78) /'t apmo/ /'bet i/ ['t a m ] [' i] ‘bush, forest’ ‘savannah, grassland’ The opposition between the three phonemes /p/, /t/ and /k/ is sometimes neutralized in wordfinal position.
A grammar of Movima by Katharina Haude