By C.F. Goodey
Beginning with the arguable speculation that not just human intelligence but additionally its antithesis 'intellectual incapacity' are not anything greater than historic contingencies, C.F. Goodey's paradigm-shifting research strains the wealthy interaction among human varieties and the noticeably altering features attributed to them. From the twelfth-century beginnings of ecu social management to the onset of formal human technological know-how disciplines within the glossy period, "A heritage of Intelligence and 'Intellectual Disability'" reconstructs the sociopolitical and non secular contexts of highbrow skill and incapacity and demonstrates how those strategies grew to become a part of psychology, drugs and biology. Goodey examines a big selection of classical, past due medieval and Renaissance texts, from well known publications on behavior and behaviour to scientific treatises and from spiritual and philosophical works to poetry and drama. Focusing in particular at the interval among the Protestant Reformation and 1700, Goodey demanding situations the authorized knowledge that will have us think that 'intelligence' and 'disability' describe average, trans-historical realities. as a substitute, Goodey argues for a version that perspectives highbrow incapacity and certainly the intellectually disabled individual as transitority cultural creations. His e-book is destined to develop into a regular source for students attracted to the background of psychology and drugs, the social origins of human self-representation, and present moral debates concerning the genetics of intelligence.
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Extra info for A History of Intelligence and "Intellectual Disability"
Blindness, says Aristotle, is a similar case. He includes within the boundaries of the natural any apparent exceptions or deficiencies that might test its relatively weak classificatory boundaries. ” All exceptions imaginable are thereby covered. Neither two-footedness and eyesight, nor even sanity and civilization, are in the last resort essential properties, precisely because nature will always throw up certain exceptional individuals whom we would still want to call human. ” Moreover there is a world of difference, within Aristotle’s own output, between those doctrines and his own supposedly “psychological” text On the Soul, which is mainly restricted to general principles.
It is not that human beings “receive” some intellectual content in their subjective understandings. Rather, they belong objectively to that class of living beings which has some possible point of contact with the class of things to which “the understanding” belongs. Man and the understanding, in terms of logic, are not mutually repellent or exclusive categories. Nor do they overlap. , divine or eternal ones. ” Aristotle draws a sharp contrast between “partaking of” (overlap) and “receptive of” (contiguity).
Ancient Philosophy and the “Worst Disability” 23 Plato’s supreme disability is embodied in the person who (a) has power and (b) is ignorant of its dialectic: that is, someone who in both respects is the exact opposite of himself. If we want to look for cross-historical links from Plato to ourselves, it is in this solipsistic way of thinking that we shall find them, rather than in any supposedly positive definition of human intelligence or disability. Such definitions are always self-referential, thus bound to time and place.
A History of Intelligence and "Intellectual Disability" by C.F. Goodey