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By Catherine J. Garvey.

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In Givón’s alternative conception of functional grammar, structure- and distribution-based markedness has been supplemented with the concept of cognitive effort. Here, the unmarked configuration is regarded as more frequent, structurally less complex and cognitively easier to process, whereas the marked configuration is considered less frequent, structurally more complex and cognitively more difficult to process (Givón 1993: 178). If this is adapted to a preference-organization frame of reference, preferred variants are structurally less complex, more frequent, linguistically realized in a more conventional manner and thus easier to process, while dispreferred variants are structurally more complex, less frequent, linguistically realized in a less conventional manner and thus harder to process and, because of their less conventional status, a prime candidate for signifying conversationally implicated meaning.

I am also grateful to my anonymous reviewers for their helpful comments. References Birner, Betty and Ward, Gregory. 1998. Information Status and Noncanonical Word Order in English. Amsterdam and Philadelphia: John Benjamins. Bloor, Thomas and Bloor, Meriel. 1995. The Functional Analysis of English: a Hallidayan Approach. London: Arnold. Brown, Penelope and Levinson, Stephen. 1987. Politeness: Some Universals in Language Usage. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Brown, Penelope. 1995. “Politeness strategies and the attribution of intentions: the case of Tzeltal irony”.

Why do you say that? [[Because] [I]] don’t see why you think I should comment on something like that which is for Neal a personal tragedy. It’s happened, you can have a judgement, I can have a judgement but I’m not going to be drawn on that. 5. If a fully negative theme zone consisting of [[negative textual theme] [negative interpersonal theme] [negative topical theme]] is realized at the end of a turn, it signifies that the coparticipant does not intend to continue with a negotiation-of-validity sequence.

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A sketch of Malagasy grammar by Catherine J. Garvey.

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