By Victoria Fromkin, Robert Rodman, Nina Hyams
Assuming no earlier wisdom of linguistics, AN creation TO LANGUAGE, 10th version, is acceptable for a number of fields--including schooling, languages, psychology, cognitive technology, anthropology, English, and educating English as a moment Language (TESL)--at either the undergraduate and graduate degrees. This thoroughly up-to-date version keeps the transparent descriptions, humor, and seamless pedagogy that experience made the e-book a perennial best-seller, whereas including new details and routines that render each one subject clean, attractive, and present. to be had with InfoTrac scholar Collections http://gocengage.com/infotrac.
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Extra info for An Introduction to Language (10th Edition)
The Birds and the Bees Teach me half the gladness That thy brain must know; Such harmonious madness From my lips would flow, The world should listen then, as I am listening now. PERCY BYSSHE SHELLEY, 1792–1822, To a Skylark Most animal species possess some kind of communication system. Humans also communicate through systems other than language such as head nodding or facial expressions. The question is whether the communication systems used by other species are at all like human language with its very specific properties, most notably its creative aspect.
Birdsongs have also inspired poets as in Shelley’s To a Skylark, not to mention cartoonists. Birds do not sing for our pleasure, however. Their songs and calls communicate important information to other members of the species and sometimes to other animals. Birdcalls (consisting of one or more short notes) convey danger, feeding, nesting, flocking, and so on. Bird songs (more complex patterns of notes) are used to stake out territory and to attract mates. Like the messages of crabs and spiders, however, there is no evidence of any internal structure to these songs; they cannot be segmented into discrete meaningful parts and rearranged to encode different messages as can the words, phrases, and sentences of human language.
According to this view language acts like a filter on reality. One of Whorf’s best-known claims in support of linguistic determinism was that the Hopi Indians do not perceive time in the same way as speakers of European languages because the Hopi language does not make the grammatical distinctions of tense that, for example, English does with words and word endings such as did, will, shall, -s, -ed, and -ing. A weaker form of the hypothesis is linguistic relativism, which says that different languages encode different categories and that speakers of different languages therefore think about the world in different ways.
An Introduction to Language (10th Edition) by Victoria Fromkin, Robert Rodman, Nina Hyams