By Victoria Fromkin, Robert Rodman, Nina Hyams
Assuming no previous wisdom of linguistics, AN creation TO LANGUAGE, 9th variation, is suitable for a number of fields--including schooling, languages, psychology, anthropology, English, and educating English as a moment Language (TESL)--at either the undergraduate and graduate degrees. This thoroughly up to date variation keeps the transparent descriptions, humor, and seamless pedagogy that experience made the textual content a perennial best-seller, whereas including new details and workouts that render every one subject clean, enticing, and present.
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Additional info for An Introduction to Language (9th Edition)
No speaker of English knows all 472,000 entries in Webster’s Third New International Dictionary. And even if someone did know all the words in Webster’s, that person would still not know English. Imagine trying to learn a foreign language by buying a dictionary and memorizing words. No matter how many words you learned, you would not be able to form the simplest phrases or sentences in the language, or understand a native speaker. No one speaks in isolated words. ” After many tries, a native might understand this question and then point in the direction of a gas station.
In English cock-a-doodle-doo is an onomatopoeic word whose meaning is the crow of a rooster, whereas in Finnish the rooster’s crow is kukkokiekuu. Forget gobble gobble when you’re in Istanbul; a turkey in Turkey goes glu-glu. Sometimes particular sound sequences seem to relate to a particular concept. In English many words beginning with gl relate to sight, such as glare, glint, gleam, glitter, glossy, glaze, glance, glimmer, glimpse, and glisten. However, gl words and their like are a very small part of any language, and gl may have nothing to do with “sight” in another language, or even in other words in English, such as gladiator, glucose, glory, glutton, globe, and so on.
Our knowledge of a language determines which strings of words are well-formed sentences and which are not. Therefore, in addition to knowing the words of the language, linguistic knowledge includes rules for forming sentences and making the kinds of judgments you made about the examples in (1) and (2). These rules must be finite in length and finite in number so that they can be stored in our finite brains. Yet, they must permit us to form and understand an infinite set of new sentences. They are not rules determined by a judge or a legislature, or even rules taught in a grammar class.
An Introduction to Language (9th Edition) by Victoria Fromkin, Robert Rodman, Nina Hyams