By Joel Wallman
This ebook is a critique of the experiments of modern years that attempted to coach language to apes. The achievements of those animals are in comparison with the traditional improvement of language, either spoken and signed kinds, in kids. it's argued that the apes in those stories bought basically crude simulations of language instead of language itself and that there's no sturdy proof that apes can collect a language. A survey of the communique platforms of apes and monkeys in nature unearths that those structures range from language in profound ways--language is a uniquely human characteristic.
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Additional info for Aping Language
If the object of a transfer test is to find out the extent to which an animal has induced an abstract, contentindependent solution for a problem type, then only the results of the first presentation of each new problem should be looked at, since performance on subsequent trials would be confounded with the effect of new learning. 1 Consider an animal that has learned to discriminate the larger within each pair of items in a series of pairs. When introduced to a new series of trials, in which not the larger but, say, the brighter of the two items is the rewarded choice, the animal will typically reach a high level of correct choices much more rapidly than it did on the first series, often attaining 100 percent accuracy after the first trial, which can be said to "inform" the animal what is wanted of it.
Premack reports that Sarah made 2 errors in 8 such trials.
Whereas, according to Savage-Rumbaugh (Savage-Rumbaugh et a\. 1986, p. 213), none of the other ape-language subjects has been clearly shown capable of understanding spoken language, Kanzi's facility with words exceeds his knowledge of lexigrams. In fact, Kanzi learns his lexigrams by associating them with word-referent pairings he already knows. To promote Kanzi's understanding of spoken English, his keyboard has been augmented with a speech synthesizer. When a lexigram is pressed, in addition to the button lighting up, the corresponding word is produced.
Aping Language by Joel Wallman